1. Money market mutual funds invest in short-term, high-quality debt instruments, aiming to maintain a stable value.
  2. Advantages include safety and stability due to high-credit-rating investments, high liquidity with typically penalty-free withdrawals, diversification across various debt instruments, and modest interest earnings.
  3. Disadvantages encompass lower returns compared to riskier investments, lack of government insurance, vulnerability to inflation risk, management fees that can eat into returns, and the potential for negative yields in periods of extremely low or negative interest rates.

  • The Treynor Ratio is a performance metric for mutual funds, measuring returns earned above a risk-free investment per unit of market risk.
  • Advantages include risk-adjusted performance evaluation, simplicity, and usefulness for diversified portfolios.
  • Disadvantages involve ignoring unsystematic risk, dependence on beta accuracy, and lack of consideration for current market conditions.
  • The Treynor Ratio is a valuable tool for informed investment decisions but should not be used in isolation.

  • The Sortino Ratio is a risk-adjusted performance measure that evaluates mutual funds based on their downside volatility.
  • It emphasizes downside risk, making it useful for risk-averse investors concerned about capital preservation.
  • The Sortino Ratio helps investors choose funds aligned with their risk tolerance and investment goals.
  • It identifies consistent performers with better risk-adjusted returns.
  • However, the Sortino Ratio neglects the upside potential of investments.